What Is Clinical Research?

Device and drug testing commences with laboratory research that can encompass years of experiments on animals and on human cells. If the primary laboratory research turns out to be successful, then the researchers send the information to Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for consent for the continuation of the research and testing on humans.

Once the drug and device has been approved, human testing of the experimental drug and the devices can commence and typically takes place in four different stages. Every phase is considered as separate trials and after the completion of the specific phases, the investigators have to turn in their data from FDA prior to continuing to the next phase.

Procedure of human clinical trails

Phase I studies

The phase 1 studies evaluate the safety of the drug or the device. This primary phase of testing can take up to multiple months to finish, normally encompasses a small number of healthy volunteers mainly from 20 to 100 people. The people are paid for participating in the phase. The whole study is designed to determine the impact of the device or the drug on humans including how it is taken in, metabolised and then excreted. This phase of study also investigates side effects, if any, which might occur when the number of doses is increased. More than 65% of the experimental drugs have to undergo this phase of testing.

Phase II studies

The second phase of study tests the efficacy of the device or the drug. This second phase of study can last up to several months or up to two years and includes multiple patients. Most of the second phase of studies are unsystematic trials where a group of patients is divided into two, first group of the patients get the experimental drug while the second half of the whole group gets a standard treatment or a placebo. Often this phase is blinded which signifies that neither the researcher nor the patient is aware of which group received the experimental drug. This permits the investigators to offer pharmaceutical company and the FDA comparative details about the relative safety and effectiveness of the fairly new drug. One third of the experimental drugs successfully finish both the initial phases of the studies.

Phase III studies

This phase of study includes unsystematic as well as blind testing in multiple hundreds to thousands of patients. This broad scale testing that can last upto multiple years offer the FDA and the pharmaceutical company a detailed comprehension of the effectiveness of the drug or the device, the perks and the range possible adverse reaction of the drug or device. More than 70 to 90% of the drugs that make it to this phase are able to complete the requirement of the testing of this phase. Once the third phase has been completed, the pharmaceutical company can make a request to the FDA to approve the marketing of the drug or device.

Phase IV studies

The study of the fourth stage is known as the post-marketing surveillance trails that are conducted after the device or the drug has been approved for sale to the consumers. The pharmaceutical companies have multiple objectives at this stage, such as:

Compare the new drug with the drugs that already exist in the market.
Monitor the long term effectiveness of the drug as well as its impact on the life of the patient.
Determine the cost effectiveness of the drug therapy with the traditional as well as new therapies.

The fourth phase of studies can result in the device or the drug being taken off from the market or restrictions being placed on its use depending upon the outcome that it can produce in the market.

Important Benefits of eLearning for Students

Because of the wide arrangement of advantages it provides for students, eLearning has turned out to be very famous and acknowledged among students everywhere throughout the world. Technology and education are a great combination if used together with a right reason and vision.

1. Online Learning Accommodates Everyone’s Needs

This digital revolution has led to remarkable changes in how the content is accessed, consumed, discussed, and shared. Online educational courses can be taken up by office goers and housewives too, at the time that suits them. Depending on their availability and comfort, many people choose to learn at weekends or evenings. The online method of learning is best suited for everyone.

2. Lectures Can Be Taken Many Times

One can access the study program an unlimited number of times, unlike classroom teaching, with online learning. This can be very helpful at the time of revision while preparing for an exam.

3. Offers Updated Content

One of the prime benefits of online learning is that it assures you that your content are up to date and based on the latest industry trends.

4. Quick Delivery Of Lessons

eLearning is an approach to provide quick delivery of lessons. In comparison with traditional classroom teaching techniques, this mode has generally snappy conveyance cycles. This shows the time required to learn is decreased to 25%-60% of what is required in conventional learning.

There are some of the reasons why the learning time is reduced by eLearning:

Lessons begin rapidly and furthermore wrapped up in a solitary learning session. This empowers preparing projects to effortlessly take off inside half a month, or at some point even days.
Learners can characterize their own particular speed of learning as opposed to following the speed of the entire group.
Saves time as a student does not need to travel to the training venue. You can learn at the solace of your own place.
Students can contemplate particular and significant areas of the learning material without concentrating on every single topic. For instance, they can skirt certain topics they would prefer not to learn.

5. Scalability

eLearning helps in making and imparting new concepts, ideas, and thoughts. Regardless of whether it is for formal education or entertainment, eLearning is a speedy method for learning!

6. Consistency

eLearning empowers instructors to get a higher level of scope to impart the message reliably for their intended target group. This guarantees all students get a similar kind of preparing with this learning mode.

7. Reduced Costs

eLearning is cost effective when compared to traditional types of learning. The purpose behind this cost reduction is on account of learning through this mode happens rapidly and effortlessly. A considerable measure of training time is minimized concerning instructors, travel, course materials, and settlement.

This cost adequacy likewise helps in improving the benefit of an association or a business. Additionally, when you are learning at your own place, you are eased from paying for movement costs (e.g. Convenience) when training occurs in another city/state as well as outside learning materials.

8. Effectiveness

eLearning affects an association benefit. It makes it simple to get a handle on the content.

It brings about enhanced scores on accreditations, tests, or different kinds of assessment.

Higher number of students who accomplish ‘pass’ or mastery’ level.

Enhanced ability to learn and execute the new procedures or information at the working environment.

Help in holding data for a more drawn out time.

9. Less Impact On Environment

As eLearning is a paperless method for learning, it ensures the earth to a ton of degree. According to an examination done on eLearning courses, it has been discovered that distance learning programs devoured around 90% less power and produced 85% less measure of CO2 outflows when compared with traditional campus based instructive courses. With eLearning, there is no compelling reason to cut trees for acquiring paper. Hence, eLearning is a profoundly eco-accommodating method for learning.

Know the Uses of Reaction Bonded Silicon Carbide

Silicon carbide is popularly known as carborundum. The compound is made up of silicon and carbon elements and their chemical formula is SiC. The compound is naturally found as moissanite. This is used as an abrasive for which huge amounts of the compound is produced every year.

Do you know that this compound has varied uses? If not, continue reading this article to find out about the uses of the reaction bonded silicon carbide compound.

For Structural Materials

The compound is often used in bulletproof vests and composite armor. They also serve as shelving and support materials in high-temperature areas like kilns for glass fusing, firing ceramics, etc. The SiC kiln shelves are used because they are light in weight than the traditional alumina shelves.

As A Strong Catalyst Support

Reaction bonded silicon carbide exhibits a natural resistance property to oxidation. This, it is chosen as a heterogeneous catalyst to support oxidation reactions of hydrocarbons, like n-butane to maleic anhydride.

In Steel Production

When dissolved in basic oxygen furnace the compound can be used to make steel. The excess energy generated in the furnace allows processing of more scrap materials same as of hot metals.

As Abrasive Material and Cutting Tools

Silicon carbide is durable. Hence, they are used popularly as an abrasive in modern lapidary. The hardness of it makes it useful in the manufacturing industries for works like water-jet cutting, grinding, sandblasting and honing.

The finer particles of silicon carbide are fixed to paper to make sandpapers and grip tape for skateboards.

In Electric Systems

They are greatly used in the electric voltage purposes as silicon has a greater voltage acceptance. The earliest use of this compound was in the lightning arresters. Because of the voltage-dependent resistance, columns of carborundum pellets were used to connect the power lines with the earth. So, when lightning strikes the excess voltage will be passed to the earth harmlessly.

If switches are made out of them they can be placed in series. As they are good for high voltage requirements they can easily reduce the complexity of a system.

As Carborundum Printmaking

Another use of SiC compounds is collograph printmaking technique commonly known as Carborundum printmaking. On the surface of an aluminum plate, the Carborundum grit is applied to a paste. When the paste becomes dry the ink application is done. The ink gets trapped in the granular surface. When the ink is wiped off the bare areas the ink plate is printed onto paper. The painted marks embossed on the paper is the resultant print.